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Brief basic notions of the merchandise of alcohol.

C2 H5 OH ethyl alcohol is a carbon hydrate to which a hydrogen atom H has been replaced with a hydroxyl OH. It derives from ethane C2 H6, an open chain hydrocarbon, in which a hydroxyl OH has taken the place of a hydrogen atom H.

When it is pure, that is, at 100 degrees, it is a liquid that ignites at a temperature of minus 12 degrees centigrade and is lighter than water. its specific weight is 0.7946 kg per liter.
Ethyl alcohol boils at 78.3 degrees Celsius at ordinary atmospheric pressure (760 mm. Of mercury), at the same pressure, therefore, at which distilled water boils at 100 º C. and solidifies at minus 114º C, it will be called then alcohol ice.
Ethyl alcohol is subject to the phenomenon of contraction. Mixed with water it gives a volume lower than the sum of the volume of the two components water + alcohol. 100 liters of hydroalcoholic mixture at 50º Tralles at a temperature of 15.56 degrees centigrade need 54 liters of pure alcohol and 49.722 liters of distilled water. This is due to the fact that the two substances, water and pure alcohol, have a different molecular volume. Alcohol is higher and water is lower. The water molecule is interposed between those of the alcohol using the available intermolecular space. During the mixing of the two components, an extra variation of heat develops which causes a slight evaporation which decreases the volume of the two liquids.
In nature, alcohol is rarely found in the free state. It is easily found by spontaneous splitting of vegetable organic compounds, fruit and sugary juices, for the fermentation process, by distillation and also by synthesis. In other words, to obtain alcohol with traditional methods, the sugars or starches present in many products in nature, cereals, potatoes, sugar beets, are necessary. Starch is a polysaccharide (complex sugar) that will be transformed into simple sugars by enzymes.
The most important raw materials needed to produce alcohol.
Glucose - also called grape sugar, is found in considerable quantities in sweet fruits such as grapes, dates, figs etc. , in honey and citrus juices.
Fructose - is found like glucose in sweet fruits and honey.
Mannose - is not present in plants but is produced by hydrolysis (splitting reaction produced by water or enzymes).
Sucrose - sugar par excellence, is obtained from beets, sugar cane and other vegetables such as date plants.
Maltose - is found especially in germinated barley called malalt.
Lactose - rare in the plant kingdom, it is normally found in commercial milk. Normally used for feeding children.
Raffinose - lightly sweetener that goes with beet sugar.
Starch- is a carbohydrate of plant organisms. Present in seeds and tubers. It is transformed into glucose under the influence of acids and into maltose by the diastatic action of the malt. by enzymes. The word starch is used for the product obtained from wheat, rye, barley, maize, buckwheat, rice, beans, broad beans, peas, etc. We use the word starch made from potatoes, bananas, cassava, chestnuts, etc. However, from a chemical point of view, there is no difference except the shape and size of the structure of the granules, depending on the plant of origin.
Alcohol can also be produced by synthesis (chemically) but fortunately the laws prohibit its use in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.

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